Usually, Installation of fiber optic cable in Tempa can be done by using many of the similar methods as conventional copper cables. Some guidelines are briefly mentioned to carry out the fiber optic cable installation method inappropriate manner-
- Never directly pull on the fiber directly. It is suggested to pull on the fiber cable strength members only
- Cable bend radius should not exceed and long enough for the run.
- The maximum pulling load rating not to be exceeded. Understand and scrutinize the maximum recommended load rating of the cable.
- Roll the cable off the spool.
- Conduct the Installation in the planned manner. Pull, do not push cables. Use proper tools and techniques.
- Monitor the supply reel during installation.
- Communicate all along the course of the installation.
- Comply with the limits of vertical rise. Permits the thermal expansion and contraction.
- Appropriate safety precaution must be taken – no food, drink or smoke or look into the fiber without checking status.
- Leave service loops and Segregate the work area.
- In case of direct burial installations, the cable should lie flat in a trench and vehicles to drive over a cable will not be permitted.
- Vault locations should be set near the sharpest bend locations to minimize cable tensions.
- Categorize lightwave equipment that will be used and ensured that the pieces of equipment will function appropriately.
Perfunctorily Optical ﬁbers are different from steel and copper cables, and In Tempa the methods to install them are signiﬁcantly different indeed. Fibers are extremely brittle, elastic at the same time. Fibers must be confined by tensile forces (axial), compressive forces and bending. Fiber laying is a specialized area that has to be performed by the trained and experienced workforce. Fiber optic cable laying procedures; those are practiced in Tempa are discussed below in a brief manner-
Ducting & Trenching refers to the conventional method of laying optical fibers popularly used in most developing countries. This particular method involves creating a trench through manual or mechanized soil mining. This is a preferable approach in those countries where manual labor is cheap.
Mini Trenching- For Mini Trenching; Mechanized equipment has been used on many different surfaces. However, this technique is not suitable for soil with cobbles or gravel, or sandy soil. This method can be used on the path that has asphalt surfaces and has an advantage over conventional cable laying methods in that it is much faster to execute.
There are three methods of mini trenching that are commonly used in real world. These are:
- Standard Method
- Fully Automated
Micro Trenching-Unlike conventional trenching, Micro-trenching creates a shallow trench in asphalt, the measurement typically contains 2 cm wide and 30 cm deep. Special microtubes are then placed in the grooves and to be ﬁlled, typically by cold asphalt. The ﬁbers are blown into the tubes.
Aerial Cables-By using the similar techniques that are used for copper telecommunication cables; Aerial ﬁber optic cables are installed in the real world. Nevertheless, It is important to understand that the transmission characteristics of fiber is impacted by tensile stress and bends, compressive stress, therefore It is essential to ensure that cable sag is within acceptable limits.
Directly Cables Buried – In this fiber laying technique, specialized equipment usually been used to create tiny incisions on any surface including concrete and asphalt. With a protective covering, the ﬁber cable is then laid along with epoxy. Hypothetically this technique is the same as micro-trenching but does not require ducting and suitable to be used in urban areas.
Horizontal Directional Drilling-refers to a trenchless technique used for installing conduits, underground pipes and cables and so forth. In this particular installation procedure, a drilling rig launched from the outside that helps to create a shallow arc along a predefined path. This particular multi-staged process contains the first step of creating an entrance pit with a receiving hole followed by the drilling of that hole through the designed path to enlarge the hole by the help of back reamer (a cutting tool).In the next phase, a casing pipe is positioned in the enlarged hole by using the drill stem. Through advanced HDD machines, a fully automatic gyro based drilling mechanism has been operated to conduct the process.
Modulation Techniques- While implementing large telecommunication networks with high throughput, Modulation Techniques considered as the key element. These techniques play vital role while systems are designed to operate at 10/ 40Gbps. There are a number of different schemes available to perform the modulation functions among them Return-to-Zero (RZ), Non-return-to-zero (NRZ), Sinusoidal Same Phase Modulation (SaPM) are remarkable.
The prerequisites of fiber optic transmission are very dissimilar from those of CATV systems or microwave transmissions. None of the single modulation configurations can cater for all the different sources of performance dilapidation. Thus a cautious and calculative selection of advanced modulation configuration is must to serve the purpose of improving the system performance through alleviating the effect of the major sources of performance degradation.
Depending upon the typography along with the local conditions the depth of the standard burial depth for fiber optic cables varies. For instance, the burial depth can vary between 30 to 42 inches if the cable is being buried around road crossings, or under the road which has not been finished yet. Therefore while answering the question like How deep does a fiber optic cable buried???? Or what should be Minimum depth for fiber optic cable underground???? Some key factors need to be considered-
- Climate must be taken under consideration during the burial of fiber optic. It is suggested to bury the cable at least 30 inches below ground if the ground is prone to freeze during extended periods of time.
- To comply with the norms Freeze Line Burial Safety and prevent the cable from being harmed once buried under the freeze line, it should be enclosed with sand.
- In the case of Roadway Crossing Burial depth, the recommended burial depth is 42 inch since roadway crossings will need a deeper standard burial depth for the fiber optic cable installation. Irrespective of the depth measurement all cable burials must be marked by a brightly colored ribbon.
While performing the optical fiber cabling system in particular project the fiber optic cable installation method statement must be pre-defined to provide the specific guidelines regarding selection and receivable of the material and the following activities to do the process successfully. It is necessary to ensure that required approvals are available for all drawings and schedules. A checklist of the approvals are mentioned beneath-
- Off-loading must be conducted in the open area and protection of essential pieces of equipment from damaged or misuse must be ensured.
- Verification of the bracing and supports available to avoid the damage during transit lifting or unloading.
- During off-loading adequate protection must be provided to prevent the mechanical damage.
- The lifting equipment is satisfactorily rated and fit enough to serve the purpose of lifting a specific weight.
- At the time of lifting or pulling the cable drums use the provided fixtures for instance- bugles, transport eyebolts and so forth
- Manual lifting, pulling or pushing must be restricted.
- Manufacturer recommendations must be perused while lifting or pulling the cables.
- Utilize only the lifting slings of ample length to get a 45” angle between the cable drums.
- The cable drums are suggested to be offloaded in a vertical positioned open area.
- Without any justified emergency situation, it is recommended to avoid standing right in the place where cable drums is being lifted.
- The storage must be horizontal and smooth.
- The cable drums grounding phase must be conducted in slow and gentle manner.
On the street, the fiber cables hanging on the poles overhead are commonly called as aerial fiber cables. Aerial fiber cables are able to deal with the adverse environment. Aerial fiber cables prevent the destruction of nature and man-made damage or theft. Different kinds of aerial fiber optic cables are available in Tempa. The underside discussion will be helpful to know about aerial fiber optic cable installation procedures and important key points to perceive during installation.
Aerial fiber optic cables can be classified according to their variations in the process of installation.The two broad category of this classification are-
- Catenary wire style- encompasses general outdoor loose tube cables which can be lashed into a messenger
- Self-supporting style- also known as all-dielectric self-supporting (ADSS ) cables.The special feature of this cable is they are made to support their own weight and environmental conditions such as wind and ice.
To complete the pole mounted aerial fiber optic cable Installation inappropriate manner some guidelines need to be followed in each phase of the installation. This is-
Before Installation Phase
- Making a proper plan is very necessary and the plan should be approved by all the parties.
- Adequate clearances must be preserved between fiber optic cables and electrical power cables on joint-use poles.
- Existing dead-end pole must be assessed to see whether they can endure the stresses during aerial cable installation.
- During the cable route survey, splice location should be usually selected.
- In wet condition, aerial installation should never be done.
- Ensure the appropriate training of relevant personnel for pole line work.
According to the differentiation in the types of aerial cable, there are generally two installation procedures. One is to knot a fiber optic cable to a steel messenger that is installed between the poles.
Another procedure is the direct installation of self-supporting aerial cables. It makes simpler the task of placing fiber optic cables onto an aerial plant.
During the cable, installation to comply the safety measures here are some instructions those are advised to follow —
- Ensuring the cable installation tools and pieces of equipment are in order to work properly since defective pieces of equipment increase the chance of damaging the cables and injury to workforce
- Taking extra measures while working near electrical exposures if electrical lines are passing through where an installation is being operated.
- Before pulling the cable it is suggested to schedule unavailability of personnel and pieces of equipment in that particular area to avoid the injury to the personnel or damage to the cable.
Cable installation process is complicated in especially the case of aerial cable installations requires extra care in every aspect. Thus attentiveness and endurance are needed although the operation of an installation process. Hence proper training and planning are must to conduct successful cable installation process in the real world.